Journal of Indus Medical College

Journal of Indus Medical College

Basic info

  • Publisher: Indus Medical College Tando Muhammad Khan
  • Society/Institution: University of Modern Sciences
  • Country of publisher: pakistan
  • Platform/Host/Aggregator: OJS
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2020/Nov/25

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Health science, Medical science
  • Publisher's keywords: Indus Medical College, Medical Sciences, Health Sciences, Public Health, Laboratory Sciences, Biological Sciences
  • Language of fulltext: english
  • Time from submission to publication: 12 weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? Yes

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: Other
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 2019
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: Nopolicy
  • Deposit policy registered in: None

This journal has '17' articles

Effect of Tropical Bromefenac in the Treatment of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Study of 32 Cases

Effect of Tropical Bromefenac in the Treatment of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Study of 32 Cases

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Khan, Aisha Khan, Atiqa Khan, Sobia Khan, Aftab Ahmed Khan
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Purpose: To monitor and confirm the effect of topical bromfenac nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the treatment of acute central serous chorioretinopathy at our facility. Introduction: Central serous chorioretinopathy, a disorder mostly an idiopathic ocular disorder characterized by a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina at the macula, caused by active retinal pigment epithelial leakage. Although the exact pathophysiology of CSC has not been clearly elucidated, the primary abnormality leading to RPE disruption and leakage is thought to cause increase choroidal permeability. Studies using different imaging techniques have revealed the possible causes of abnormal permeability of the inner choroid. Ischemia and inflammation might lead to exudative changes within the choroid and the subsequent changes at the RPE. Topical bromfenac, ketorolac, nepafenac and diclofenac all belong to the NSAIDs class of medications. As an anti-inflammatory class, they function by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which blocks the synthesis of prostaglandins. A reduction in prostaglandin formation results a decrease in inflammation. It appears that the principle pathway involved in pain and inflammation is the cycloxygenase-2 pathway where nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) seems to play a significant role. Materials and Methods: It is an interventional, retrospective as well as prospective study conducted at Indus Medical College Hospital, Tando Mohammad Khan from February 2017 to January 2018 includes 32 patients. Only patients with acute CSC were included while those with chronic or recurrence were excluded. Careful history taken about sensitivity to bromfenac or any other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). All 32 patients were diagnosed as having acute CSC relying upon visual acuity by standard Snellen chart, dilated fundus exam using slit lamp (SHIN-NIPPON SL-203, Japan) with 90D lens and OCT (ocular coherence tomography by NIDEK, model RS-330 Japan) findings. All patients were treated by bromfenac topical drops twice daily. Patients followed on 5th day, 10th day and 30th day after presentation. Vision was recorded, dilated fundoscopy and OCT performed on each visit. All 32 patients were male (Table 1), divided into 3 age groups i.e. group A(21-30 yrs) includes 16 (50%) patients, group B(31- 40 yrs) includes 12(37.50%) patients and group C (41-50 yrs) includes 4(12.50%) patient (Table 2). 14(43.75%) were right eyes, 18(56.25%) were left (Table 3). Vision recorded using standard Snellen chart, 16(50%) patients having vision 0.4, 8(25%) were 0.2, 5(15.62%) were having 0.1 while remaining 3(9.37%) were recorded as CF at 1 meter (Table 4). Macular thickness recorded using OCT, patients again divided into 3 groups on OCT findings, group 1, 18(56.25%) patients having macular thickness between 422-485 microns, group 2, 11(34.37%) patients between 535-565 microns, while group 3 includes 3(9.37%) patients having thickness between 657-722 microns (Table 5). All 32 patients received topical bromfenac, one drop twice daily to treat acute CSC for 10 days and monitor for 1 month. Results: This interventional study includes 32 patients who were diagnosed as acute CSC and followed from the day of presentation to 30th day. All 32 patients were underwent intervention by using topical bromfenac eye drop, one drop twice daily for 30 days. Macular thickness and visual acuity recorded from the day of presentation up to 30th day. Table 6 shows all changes before and after treatment and Figure 1 (a, b, c, d) and 2 (a, b, c, d) shows early resolution of sub-macular fluid in one of these patients treated with topical bromfenac eye drops (one drop twice daily). In group A the macular thickness (CFT) improve from 422-485 microns at onset to 317-382 microns on 5th day becomes 246-295 on 10th day while 210-226 on 30th day. Vision improved from 0.4 to 0.7 at 5th day, improved to 0.8 on 10th day and remained same on 30th day. In group B the CFT reduced from 535-565 microns to 401-440 microns on 5th day becomes 318-310 on 10th day and on 30th day it was 221-232 microns with improvement in visual acuity which was 0.2 at onset to 0.6 at 5th day, 0.7 at 10th day and improved to 0.8 on 30th day. In group C the CFT reduced from 657-722 microns to 456-469 microns on 5th day, 259-366 microns on 10th day while 206-227 microns on 30th day. Visual acuity improved from CF at onset to 0.4 on 5th day, 0.6 on 10th day and improved to 0.7 on 30th day. Conclusion: This, simple, safe, affordable and easily available treatment modality in all parts of the world with early rehabilitation of acute CSC patients.

Keywords: Treatment, Bromefenac, Central serous chorioretinopathy
Determination of Weak Du Antigen Among Rheusus Negative Blood Donors

Determination of Weak Du Antigen Among Rheusus Negative Blood Donors

Authors: Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Umair Ali Soomro, Qandeel Soomro
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Introduction: Rh antigen is major blood group of Rh blood group system. The ‘’Weak D’’ antigen indicates the presence of aberrant expression of Rh -D protein on red cells. In vitro, Rh antigen does not react routinely by agglutination with potent monoclonal anti – D antisera, but it requires adding up of antiglobulin serum to detect the presence of antigen. Expression of weak D antigen is necessary in certain cases where risk of sensitization and allo-immunization is present. Objective: The main objective of this study is to detect the presence of ‘’Weak D’’ antigen in Rh-Negative blood donors. Methodology: This study was conducted at Department of Pathology, Indus Medical College, Tando Muhammad Khan during the period of 6 months (November 2017 to May 2018). A total of 2281 participants were included in this study. 3mL blood was collected from each participant for detection of ABO and Rh blood typing. Rh -Negative individuals were further evaluated for the presence of ‘’Weak-D antigen’’ with the addition of antihuman antiglobulin. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0. P – value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Out of 2281 participants, 2122 (93.02%) were Rh-Positive while 159 (6.97%) were Rh-Negative. Rh-Negative individuals were evaluated for the presence of weak D antigen. Out of 159 Rh-negative individuals, 8 (5.03%) were positive for weak D antigen with P – value of <0.001. Conclusion: Overall incidence of weak D antigen in our study was 0.3%. Detection of weak D antigen is not routinely performed in laboratories, but their presence may be important factor in certain cases where risk of sensitization and allo -immunization is high.

Keywords: Weak-D antigen, Rheusus, Blood Group, ABO, Sensitization, Allo-immunization
Evaluation Of Lipid Profile In Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

Evaluation Of Lipid Profile In Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

Authors: Ramesh Kumar Suthar, Kavita Bai, Zaheer Memon, Madiha Zaki
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the lipid profile amongst individuals having chronic hepatitis C. Patients and Methods: This Hospital based observational study was done in the Medical wards, Indus Medical College Hospital, Tando Muhammad Khan during six months period( March 2017 to September 2017 ) and individuals having chronic hepatitis C were enrolled inside this research study. Fasting lipid profile sampling was taken from every single one individuals having chronic hepatitis C. Results: Total 150 patients were included. Mean age +SD was 46.35 + 2.5 (ranged 20 to 65 years). The majority of individuals 141(94.0%) demonstrate reduced levels of serum triglycerides. Low level of cholesterol was observed in 20 individuals, Levels were Low to normal in 127 persons. Hypercholesterolemia was revealed in 3 individuals i.e. 3 (2.0%). Total cholesterol, triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein and Low Density Lipoprotein levels were less in majority of the cases. A few patients showed hyperlipidemia and some patients had normal lipid profile. It demonstrates that disturbed blood lipid pattern is a universal and frequent outcome in persons having from hepatitis C for prolonged period. Conclusion: Disturbed lipid profile is a usual outcome in chronic hepatitis C. Blood Lipid levels should be checked in all persons suffering from chronic hepatitis C.

Keywords: Lipid profile, Triglycerides, Low density lipoproteien-c, Dyslipidemia
Diagnostic Significance of Platelet – to – Lymphocyte Ratio in Evaluation of Sepsis

Diagnostic Significance of Platelet – to – Lymphocyte Ratio in Evaluation of Sepsis

Authors: Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Ghulam Abbas Soomro, Dolat Singh
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Introduction: Sepsis is one the major cause of mortality and mortality in hospital settings. Many inflammatory markers have been proposed but their use is often limited due to unavailability and cost. Platelet – to – lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is now suggested as novel inflammatory marker in many conditions. Objective: To see the role of platelet – to – lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as an indicator of inflammation in patients with sepsis. Methodology: It was prospective cross sectional study performed on 415 patients. They were divided into patient/Group A (205), and healthy control/Group B (210). Patients above age of 18, admission time more than 24 hours and no co – morbid were included in the study. Demographic information was obtained from all patients. Blood sample was collected in EDTA tube and platelet count and lymphocyte were measured for PLR ratio. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0. P – value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Out of 415 patients, 143 (69.75%) were male and 62 (30.25%) were female in Group A; while in Group B, male and female were 136 (64.76%) and 74 (35.23%). Platelet – to – lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in group A was 117.24 ± 38.43 and in group B was 82.76 ± 41.88, with the p – value of <0.01. Conclusion: PLR was higher in septic patients as compared to control group. It is suggested as novel marker of inflammatory response to sepsis.

Keywords: Platelet, Lymphocyte, Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio, Sepsis, Inflammation, Infectioon
Phacoemulsification Surgeries at Indus Medical College Hospital (Study of 100 Cases)

Phacoemulsification Surgeries at Indus Medical College Hospital (Study of 100 Cases)

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Khan, Aftab Ahmed Khan, Jawed Memon, Sobia Khan
Year: 2018, Volume: 1, Number: 1
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Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of phacoemulsification surgeries at Department of Ophthalmology, Indus Medical College Hospital, TMK Pakistan. Materials and Methods: 100 eyes of 87 patients were included in this study that was conducted from 1st January 2017 to 30th November 2018. 74 patients were male whereas 13 were female. 40 right eyes, 34 left eyes while 13 patients were undergone bilateral phaco surgeries within 7 to 16 days.1 patient was in age group C, another 1 was in group D, 16 were in group E, 33 were in group F and remaining 36 were in group G. 41 were suffering from diabetes, 33 were hypertensive, 3 were with cardiac problems using pace maker and 1 was involved with HCV infection. Patients suffering from ocular diseases: open angle glaucoma 5, pseudoexfoliation 6, pigment dispersion syndrome 2, chronic iritis 3, Cholesterolosis bulbi 2, asteroid hyalosis 1, age related macular degeneration 3. All were dilated with mydriacyl/phenylephrine eye drops, local anesthesia as retrobulbar as well as facial block (von lint technique) were given using 2% xylocaine injection without adrenaline. 2.8 mm incision, capsulorhexis with bent 27 gauge needle, followed by hydrodissection and in some hydrodelineation with small caliber irrigation cannula, copious 2% methylcellulose used to save endothelial cells as well as to maintain anterior chamber, all 4 steps of phaco followed with divide and conquer method and finally injectable IOL implanted. Every operation ended with subconjunctival injection of dexamethasone 2mg plus gentamicin 20mg. Results: 59 eyes gained 20/20 visual acquity on first post-operative day, 23 eyes gained 20/40, 10 gained 20/60 which over a period of five days improved to 20/20 after using topical prednisolone 1mg along with moxifloxacin eye drops, 5 gained 20/80 corrected with glasses, 3 were having 20/100 because of macular diseases. Conclusion: In my experience phacoemulsification is an excellent technique which saves time, gives early rehabilitation depending upon the patience, experience and skill of surgeons.

Keywords: Cataract, Phacoemulsion, Results
Frequency of Depression Among Teenagers with Asthma

Frequency of Depression Among Teenagers with Asthma

Authors: Zaheer Hussain Memon, Akbar Memon, Madiha Zaki, Ramesh Kumar Suthar
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 1
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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of depression among asthmatic teenagers 13 to 19 years of age visiting at outpatient departments of Indus Medical College Hospital Tando Muhammad Khan. METHODS AND MATERIAL: An observational prospective study conducted at the Department of Medicine, Indus Medical College Hospital, Tando Mohammad Khan , Pakistan from December 2017 to July 2018 . A total of 262 asthmatic teenagers attending Medicine and Pulmonology clinic, aged 13 to 19 years, who have been diagnosed to have uncontrolled asthma (according to GINA guidelines) for at least one year were included .Demographic profile along with asthma outcomes were compared with age. The p value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 262 asthmatic teenager patients were included in this study with mean age + SD 55.49 + 11.67 years. The mean duration + SD (range) of asthma was 5.6 + 1.32 (3 to 8 years). It was found that 30 (11.4%) cases had family history of asthma whereas 45(17.1%) cases had family history of depression. In the present study the total frequency of depression was found to be 37 (14.1%) among the teenagers. In the present study it was observed that gender, duration of asthma, residence, marital status, educational status, socio-economic status, history of psychiatric illness and employment status were significantly associated with depression(p value <0.05). CONCLUSION: This study concluded that depression in highly prevalent in patients with asthma among teenagers.

Keywords: Asthma ,Teenager, Depression, Frequency,
Comparative Analysis of Immunochromatographic Diagnostic Test and Microscopy for the Detection of Plasmodium Species

Comparative Analysis of Immunochromatographic Diagnostic Test and Microscopy for the Detection of Plasmodium Species

Authors: Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Saira Rajput, Umair Ali Soomro, Sikandar Ali Bhand
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 1
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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Light and thin film microscopy is a cost-effective gold standard for Malaria diagnosis is time consuming but needs expertise. In detecting Plasmodium species, immunochromatographic technique (ICT) has been claimed as an alternative to light microscopy. OBJECTIVE: This research was performed in reference to light microscopy of the smears to determine sensitivity and specificity of rapid malaria testing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was carried out between January and september 2018 at Department of Pathology, Indus Medical College Hospital Tando Muhammad Khan. 105 patients with an evocative history of malaria were subjected to both tests, i.e. light microscopy and Immunochromatographic Technique (ICT) malaria P.f./Pan Rapid Test System for two methods comparison. RESULTS: The findings of the blood test showed that 49 patients (46.66%) were infected with malaria and the remaining 47 (44.76%) were negative for malaria. P.falciparum was found in 17 of positive patients. In the remaining 32 cases (65.30%) non-falciparum plasmodium species were found. The findings of the P.f./Pan ICT malaria test showed that 47 (44.76%) of the patient samples were positive for malaria parasites and 58 (55.23%) were negative for malaria parasites. 16 cases (32.65%) of P. falciparum infection and cases of non-falciparum plasmodium species accounted for remainder of the 31 cases ( 63.26%). ICT malaria therefore showed 94.25 per cent sensitivity and 95.00 per cent specificity for malaria parasite detection. CONCLUSION: Immunochromatographic technique offers user-friendly, accurate, sensitive alternative to slide microscopy for malaria diagnosis without adding cost and effort.

Keywords: Malaria, Plasmodium, Immunochromatography, Microscopy, Thick and thin films, Diagnostic Test, Sensitivity, Specificity
Maternal Thyroid Status and Its Association with Iron Profile

Maternal Thyroid Status and Its Association with Iron Profile

Authors: Arshad Ali Lakho, Zahida Zia, Sher Ali, Mubashir Raza, Ashraf Ali
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 1
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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Iron deficiency anemia is very common during pregnancy, and is associated with increased foetal demand and use. Iron plays an important role in our body, influencing many physiological functions including the function of thyroid. PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: This is a cross sectional study conducted at Polyclinic Hospital Islamabad and was performed during 6 months period (December 2017 to July 2018). 88 pregnant females with iron deficiency anemia and 90 normal control of pregnancy females with normal iron status and no anemia were included in the study. All were evaluated for detection of hemoglobin, serum ferritin and thyroid profile. P – value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 25.24 ± 3.1 years for normal pregnant women and 26.21 ± 3.5 years for iron-deficient pregnant women. The mean gestational age was 29.39 ± 2.1 weeks in normal pregnant women and 28.18 ± 2.7 weeks in iron deficient pregnant women. 5 (5.55 percent) were hypothyroid in normal pregnant women, 83 (92.22 percent) were euthyroid and 2 (2.22 percent) were hyperthyroid, 35 (39.77 percent) were hypothyroid in iron-deficient pregnant women, 29 (32.95 percent) were euthryoid and 24 (27.77 percent) were hyperthyroid. The thyroid status difference was statistically significant in both groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Iron deficiency has been closely linked to deranged thyroid status. Thus, iron therapy is required to retain status as both have effects on one another.

Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia, thyroid function, iron profile, pregnancy
Study on Relationship Between Hyperuricemia and Dyslipidemia

Study on Relationship Between Hyperuricemia and Dyslipidemia

Authors: Ramesh Kumar Suthar, Kavita Bai, Mumtaz Ali Memon, Keenjhar Rani
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 1
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between high serum uric acid levels and lipid profile so as to yield dynamic precautionary actions from emerging imminent cardiovascular ailments. METHODOLOGY: This research study was piloted on 180 adult patients (n=180), 90 hyperuricemic and 90 healthy controls in the Department of Medicine and Physiology, Indus Medical College Tando Muhammad Khan, and the duration of study was six months (from April 2018 to July 2018). Patients who were alcoholic, having diagnosis of chronic hepatic Illness, renal conditions, cardiovascular diseases as well as those taking lipid lowering agents and on the treatments that can disturb uric acid were disqualified from this research study. Lipid profile performed for those who found with raised uric acid levels but without symptoms and those presented with gout. Data catered and evaluated on SPSS version 16.0. Quantitative factors were uttered as mean + standard deviation. To compare the means, student t test was applied. Positive and negative correlation was likewise calculated through regression analysis. RESULTS: This research study revealed significant results with positive association (p < 0.05) between uric acid and total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein. Instead, remarkable negative association observed between uric acid and high density lipoprotein levels (p value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hyperuricemia is linked with dyslipidemia that may lead to imminent cardiovascular conditions. Consequently, cardiovascular emergencies can be possibly prevented by diagnosing as well as timely managing in elevated uric acid level and dyslipidemia.

Keywords: Hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides
Evaluation of Red Blood Cell Indices in Patients of Falciparum Malaria

Evaluation of Red Blood Cell Indices in Patients of Falciparum Malaria

Authors: Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Inayatullah Memon, Umair Ali Soomro, Shumail Siddiqui, Mehnaz Shaikh, Huma Abbasi
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 1
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine red cell indices seen at the Tertiary Care Hospital, in order to determine their usefulness in diagnosing falciparum malaria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a case control study. The study was performed from February 2018 to September 2018 at the Department of Pathology, Indus Medical College Tando Muhammad Khan. One hundred and ninety-six children aged 6 months to 40 years were recruited into the study including 98 diagnosed with malaria and 98 controls. The control subjects were recruited as no clinical features of malaria. Hematocrit (HCT), haemoglobin concentration (HB), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were the following red cell indices obtained from the samples. The data was analysed using version 21.0 of SPSS. By measuring sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive and negative predictive values, the diagnostic precision was calculated. The accuracy of these statistics was tested using a confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: The HCT had a 80.04% sensitivity and an 82.15% specificity, while the HB had an 82.87 sensitivity and a 72.01 specificity. The positive predictive values for HCT and HB were respectively 88.76%, and 87.91%. Low values were found in MCV (57.91%), MCH (0%), and MCHC (0%). However, there was a important association between MCH and MCHC with malaria (P<001). CONCLUSION: The occurrence of anaemia would be a valuable supporting criterion in the diagnosis of malaria.

Keywords: Malaria, Red cell indices, Diagnosis, Specificity, Sensitivity
Association of Risk Factors For Diabetes Mellitus and Serum Electrolytes

Association of Risk Factors For Diabetes Mellitus and Serum Electrolytes

Authors: Sher Ali, Arshad Ali Lakho, Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Halar Rahim, Ashraf Ali
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 2
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the imbalance of selected serum electrolytes and the associated factors in diabetic patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study, carried out in diabetic patients attending their follow-up appointments at the Polyclinic Hospital Islamabad. To include 155 patients with diabetes mellitus in the study, a convenience technique of sampling was used. A questionnaire was utilized to comprise all necessary information from each patient with diabetes mellitus. 5mL of venous whole blood was extracted from each participant and ion-selective electrode (ISE) device and automated chemistry analyzer were processed and tested for determination of serum electrolyte and serum glucose respectively. In order to determine the association and meaningful link between irregular electrolytes in serum and independent parameters, the model of Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression for multivariate logistic were performed respectively. RESULTS: In diabetic patients, an increased prevalence rate of disturb electrolytes in the serum was prominent. The total prevalence rate was 45.80% (n=71/155), with hyponatraemia being the largest (46.47%), followed by hypochloraemia and hypercalcaemia (19.48% and 14.28% respectively. There were strong positive associations between type of medication, age and high body mass index (BMI) and elevated serum concentrations of sodium (Na+) (r=0.712, P=0.003), potassium (K+) (r=0.817, P=0.002) and chloride (Cl-) (r=0.518, P=0.003). In diabetic patients, risk factors for serum electrolyte disorders were statistically defined as being employed (AOR: 3.879, 95%, P-value: (0.044), treated with various drugs (AOR: 2.988, 95% C.I, P value: 0.012) and not able to regulate the level of blood glucose or increased level of glucose (hyperglycaemic) (AOR: 3.18, 95% C.I, P value: <0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with diabetes mellitus, the concentration of serum electrolyte was abnormal significantly. In advanced patients of diabetes mellitus, incidence of imbalanced concentrations was more prevalent, with some parameters had a clear strong association with deranged electrolytes in the serum in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Electrolytes, Risk factors, Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperkalaemia, Hyponatraemia
Omeprazole: A Cause of Vitamin B12 Deficiency - A Hospital-Based Study

Omeprazole: A Cause of Vitamin B12 Deficiency - A Hospital-Based Study

Authors: Ramesh Kumar Suthar, Kavita Bai, Madiha Zaki
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 2
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Abstract

This cross sectional prospective research study was done in the Department of Medicine, Indus Medical College, Tando Muhammad Khan. Study duration was from 05 February 2018 to 06 February 2019. It included all patients both female and male. All patients above 15 years of age, of either gender with history of recurrent abdominal pain, dyspepsia or abdominal discomfort, heartburn, GERD, H. Pylori positive patients, patients with gastritis, esophagitis, peptic and duodenal ulcer, bloating and halitosis through outdoor patient department (OPD), were enrolled in the study. The detailed history of all such patients was taken and complete physical and relevant clinical examination was performed. Vitamin B12 deficiency was considered when serum B12 level was <350 pg/ml. The informed consent was taken from every patient or from attendants of patients after full explanation of procedure regarding the study and all such manoeuvres was performed under medical ethics and through the cooperation of whole research team. The study was conducted in compliance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Venous blood samples were collected in the morning after an overnight fast from 11.00 pm for Vitamin B12 levels. During one year study period, 250 patients on long term use of omeraparzole were studied for vitamin B12 deficiency, of which 143 (57.2%) were males and 107(42.8%) were females. The observed symptoms included recurrent abdominal pain in 38(15.2%), dyspepsia or abdominal discomfort in 40(16%), heartburn in 50(20%), bloating in 13(5%), halitosis in 08(3.2%) and combined / mixed symptoms in 17(11%) patients. Of two hundred fifty patients, 120 (48%) had raised MCV with vitamin B12 deficiency.

Keywords: Omeprazole, MCV, vitamin B12
Significance of Vacuette SRS Method For The Determination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) With Conventional Method As Gold Standard

Significance of Vacuette SRS Method For The Determination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) With Conventional Method As Gold Standard

Authors: Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Inayatullah Memon, Umair Ali Soomro, Qandeel Abbas Soomro, Ghulam Abbas Soomro, Shomail Saeed Siddiqui
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 2
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Abstract

Objective: To compare Vacuette (SRS 20/11) ESR values to Conventional/ Standard stergren method with objective of validating the automated and alternative methods. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis, performed at Department of Pathology, Indus Medical College Hospital Tando Muhammad Khan. Manual Westergren process and Vacuette (SRS) methods subjected a total of 120 blood samples to ESR estimations. Results evaluated on version 21.0 of SPSS. The results were evaluated, and their association was calculated by using the coefficient of Pearson correlation in SPSS. Results: Powerful significant association exists between the Westergren process Vacuette SRS methods with Pearson coefficient 0.96 and highly significant p value <0.001. Conclusion: Vacuette SRS is well associated with the Westergren manual process and is effective and remarkably suitable for employment in clinical laboratories with heavy workload.

Keywords: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Westergren method, conventional ESR, Vacuette ESR
Co-Existence of Malaria With Thrombocytopenia

Co-Existence of Malaria With Thrombocytopenia

Authors: Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Dolat Singh, Sikandar Ali Bhand, Qandeel Abbas Soomro, Ghulam Abbas Soomro, Khadim Hussain
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 2
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Malaria, especially in developing countries, is an important health problem. It is significant cause of mortality and morbidity, particularly in tropics. In this specific disorder, there are many haematological changes, including thrombocytopenia, anaemia, atypical lymphocytosis as well as rare intravascular coagulation. OBJECTIVE: Purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the extent of different haematological variations, particularly additional findings of thrombocytopenia in a specific form of malaria. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was an observational study carried out at Department of Pathology, Indus Medical College Hospital Tando Muhammad Khan, on patients attending the clinically suspected malaria outpatient and inpatient departments. Thin and thick peripheral smear slides for malarial parasites were developed and were stained with Leishman's stain, followed by antigen tests were also incorporated where possible. Total blood counts were used in other studies. RESULTS: 238 (28%) patients showed malaria parasites on peripheral blood film among the 850 patients with suspected malaria included. Male superiority of 2.01:1 was observed as compared to females. A total of 196 out of 238 patients had thrombocytopenia. Higher levels of thrombocytopenia were observed in P. Vivax (62.26%) is accompanied with Mixed-type Infection (21.42%) and Plasmodium falciparum (15.81%). CONCLUSION: The anaemia specifically with decreased count of platelets (thrombocytopenia) was observed specifically in Plasmodium vivax, accompanied with Plasmodium falciparum. Given that thrombocytopenia is linked with patients of malaria, as shown in current research, in patients having low platelet count and fever, the care of doctors should preserve malaria as one of the differential diagnoses.

Keywords: Malaria, Thrombocytopneia, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax
Hypomagnesaemia In Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Hypomagnesaemia In Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Authors: Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Halar Rahim, Sher Ali, Madiha Zaki, Dolat Singh
Year: 2019, Volume: 2, Number: 2
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Abstract

Introduction: Patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 have insufficiency of many important elements including serum magnaesium. Hypomagnesaemia is related with complications of diabetes mellitus and amplified the duration of disease. Objective: Main objective of the study is to evaluate the level of serum magnaesium levels and its association with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. Methodology: The study was prospective, carried out at Department of Pathology and Department of Medicine, Indus Medical College Hospital Tando Muhammad Khan between the duration of January 2018 to June 2018. 265 individuals were selected for this study and were classified as control group (n=135) and diabetic group (n=130). Samples of all participants were collected in EDTA-containing tube and Gel tube for the evaluation of HbA1c and serum magnaesium respectively. The variables were evaluated and analyzed in SPSS 21.0. The p – value of <0.05 was taken as significant statistically. Results: Males in the study were 154 (58.1%) and females were 111 (41.88%). Mean age of the included participants in control and diabetic group was 48.3 ± 3.77 years and 49.10 ± 4.98 years respectively. Mean glycated haemoglobin in control group was 5.89 ± 1.02 %, and in diabetic group was 8.71 ± 1.86 %, with statistically significant association (p <0.001). The serum magnaesium level in control and diabetic group was 1.89 ± 0.25 mg/dL and 0.58 ± 0.13 mg/dL, with statistically significant correlation (p <0.001). Conclusion: Hypomagnesaemia was associated with increased level of glycated haemoglobin showing its strong correlation with glycaemic control.

Keywords: Magnaesium, hypomagnesaemia, diabetes mellitus, insulin, glycaemic control, glycated haemoglobin

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