Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal)

Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal)

Basic info

  • Publisher: Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov
  • Country of publisher: russian federation
  • Platform/Host/Aggregator: Open journal system ojs
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/27

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Forestry, Technology
  • Publisher's keywords: Forestry, Technology, Machinery of logging, timber processing and chemical treatment of the wood biomass
  • Language of fulltext: english, russian
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 2001
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: eLIBRARY.RU
  • Deposit policy registered in:

This journal has '121' articles

Airborne Laser Scanning for Clarification of the Valuation Indicators of Forest Stands

Airborne Laser Scanning for Clarification of the Valuation Indicators of Forest Stands

Authors: V.F. Kovyazin, K.P. Vinogradov, A.A. Kitcenko, E.A. Vasilyeva
Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Number: 6
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Abstract

Nowadays the latest non-contact methods and technologies for studying the forest fund are being developed for forest monitoring improvement, forest lands assessment and their cadastral registration. It is the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) in forest inventory that is designed to solve the challenges forest management facing. Laser scanning is the only method of collecting data on the real surface covered with forest vegetation, which allows to obtain data on the shape, location and reflectivity of the studied forest objects. The result of ALS is a 3D array of laser reflections with a density of up to several dozens of points per 1 m2 and accuracy of determining their coordinates of less than 10 cm in plan and height. Various imported scanning systems are used for surveying. The ALS of the Earth’s vegetation cover is superior to all existing technologies for assessing the quantitative and qualitative parameters of forest stands in a set of characteristics. This method of assessment and inventory of forests has no competitors in the field of monitoring and valuation of forest stands. It also has sufficient accuracy in mapping woody vegetation, up to the tree survey of forested lands. The article proposes a method for determining valuation indicators: species composition, density, stock, height and diameter of forest stands according to the results of ALS in the forest area of the Vsevolozhsk district (Leningrad region). The species composition and density were determined by horizontal projections of tree crowns. The heights of the trees were determined using the Global Mapper software, and their average diameter was found using the diameter and height relationship equations known in forest valuation. The planting stock was calculated using the equations of Dementiev, Dentsin and G. Cuvier. It was found that the results of determining the valuation indicators by means of ALS can be used in forest monitoring along with the data of visual valuation, since the obtained information on the forest stand stays within the limits of permissible errors specified in the forest management instruction.

Keywords: airborne laser scanning, tree stand, monitoring, valuation indicators
Seed Regeneration of Buxus colchica Pojark. under the Conditions of Epiphytotics of Boxwood Forests

Seed Regeneration of Buxus colchica Pojark. under the Conditions of Epiphytotics of Boxwood Forests

Authors: V.A. Chadaeva, R.H. Pshegusov
Year: 2020, Volume: 19, Number: 6
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Abstract

In response to expansion of Cydalima perspectalis Walker, 1859, mass scale drying of Buxus colchica Pojark. resulted in succession of forest communities of the Western Caucasus in 2014–2017. Changes in illumination of the forest low storeys were conducive to intensive growth of such herbaceous plants as Symphytum grandiflorum DC., Asarum intermedium (C. A. Mey. ex Ledeb.) Grossh., Festuca drymeja Mert. & W.D.J. Koch, Allium ursinum L., etc. and Ruscus colchicus Yeo, Geranium robertianum L., Rubus anatolicus Focke, Hedera colchica (K. Koch) K. Koch in the undergrowth. The ground vegetation with total projective cover up to 100 % was formed. Under current conditions the total number of B. colchica seedlings 2–15 cm high is only 10–320 pcs/ha on the southern macroslope and 5–87 pcs/ha on the northern macroslope. It is hundreds and thousands of times less as it was before boxwood forests extinction. The research purpose was to determine the factors effecting seed regeneration of B. colchica in the Western Caucasus under the conditions of succession caused by C. perspectalis expansion and further epiphytotics of boxwood forests. We carried out the studies on the southern and northern macroslopes of the Western Caucasus in the basins of the Khosta, Kurdzhips, and Tsitsa rivers in 2018–2019. The number of B. colchica seedlings was determined by their complete enumeration within 66 sampling plots; the area of each plot comprised 400 m2. When revealing the factors which effect seed regeneration of B. colchica, we analyzed 17 landscape and phytocenotic parameters: altitude above sea level; exposure and slope inclination; crown density of upper storey; parameters of undergrowth, main species stands, and dead boxwood; total projective cover of undergrowth and herbage. The principal factor preventing development of B. colchica seedlings is growthinhibition due to the herb-shrub storey. The total projective cover of undergrowth and herbage are the most important predictors for the number of B. colchica seedlings on the sampling plots. For the mentioned parameters we revealed the maximum regression coefficients b* at the significance level p < 0.05: –0.589 and –0.478 for the southern macroslope, and –0.667 and –0.954 for the northern macroslope. The maximum projective cover of undergrowth in forest areas with boxwood regeneration is 50 % for both macroslopes. The maximum acceptable herbage cover is 15 % in the basin of the Khosta river, and 40 % in the basins of the Tsitsa and Kurdzhips rivers. Shading from the side of the forest upper storey suppresses growth of ground vegetation, and also prevents the development of B. colchica seedlings. Therefore the crown density, within the complex of factors, has no direct effect on the parameters of seed regeneration of B. colchica. In case of further intensive growth of the herb-shrub storey in forest phytocenoses, natural boxwood forests regeneration is highly improbable in the Western Caucasus. Artificial removal of undergrowth and herbage in forest areas will facilitate seed regeneration of the species. The research results are the basis for further monitoring of the regeneration processes of boxwood forests or their possible aboriginal change in the region.

Keywords: forest phytocenosis, succession, regeneration of Buxus colchica, ground vegetation, Cydalima perspectalis, Western Caucasus
Results and Assessment of Long-Term Introduction to Specially Protected Natural Areas of the South Taiga Zone

Results and Assessment of Long-Term Introduction to Specially Protected Natural Areas of the South Taiga Zone

Authors: N.A. Druzhinin, F.N. Druzhinin, D.M. Koryakina, S.V. Tsypilev, O.V. Chukhina
Year: 2020, Volume: 14, Number: 6
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Abstract

The article shows the analysis results of the vitality and sustainability of the plantings having introduced species in their composition in specially protected natural areas of the south taiga zone (Vologda region). The research purpose is to summarize the available information and carry out the silvicultural assessment of long-term introduction to the plantings in these territories. The species composition is revealed and the sanitary and decorative state of tree and shrub vegetation is estimated. The research objects were the plantings growing in the following parks: Arboretum in Ustyuzhna, Old Park in the settlement of Danilovskoye, Old Park in the settlement of Mozhaiskoye, and Old Park in the village of Kurkino. It was found that the species composition of the suited specially protected natural areas is represented by 34 tree and shrub species: 4 coniferous tree species, 16 deciduous tree species, and 14 species of shrubs. The share of introduced species, in the whole, for all the objects under study is more than 60 %. During the recordings, 12 types of damage were found. According to the degree of influence they were divided into 3 groups: significantly reducing the stability in the plantings (18 % of the total number of damaged trees), reducing the decorative effect (38 %), and reducing the sanitary state of wood species (44 %). In order to improve the sanitary state of the plantings, to ensure that the plantings perform their target functions, and to reduce the economic damage caused by negative anthropogenic factors, it is necessary to take sanitary and recreational measures such as removing dangerous, drying and dead trees. Valuable plants (those of old age or having historical value) were selected; certification of valuable trees was carried out. The biological diversity of tree and shrub vegetation was estimated through determining biodiversity indices. The relationship between the forest stand composition and its resistance to negative environmental factors was revealed. The results of the research can be used by the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in planning and organizing the works on arranging protection forests, including urban green zones.

Keywords: specially protected natural areas, protection forests, green zones, plantings, introduced species, sanitary state, biological diversity, vitality
Productivity and Environmental Role of Forest Shelterbelts of Robinia pseudoacacia L. of the Kuban Lowland

Productivity and Environmental Role of Forest Shelterbelts of Robinia pseudoacacia L. of the Kuban Lowland

Authors: V.V. Tanyukevich, A.S. Rulev, V.V. Borodychev, S.V. Tyurin, D.V. Khmeleva, A.A. Kvasha
Year: 2020, Volume: 10, Number: 6
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Abstract

Works on protective afforestation are carried out in order to protect agricultural land from degradation processes, as well as to improve the microclimate of land. The research purpose is to study the bioproductivity and environmental role of Robinia pseudoacacia L. forest shelterbelts in the conditions of the Kuban lowland. The approved and generally accepted methods of forest valuation, forest land reclamation, botany, and mathematical statistics were applied. Plantings were created according to the standard technology for the steppe zone of the Russian Federation. The area of forest shelterbelts is 62.4 ths ha, including 5 % of the young growth (I state class), 80 % of middle-aged forest plantings (II state class), 10 % of maturing plantings (II state class), 5 % of mature and overmature plantings (III state class). Living ground cover is formed by the following species: Koeleria pyramidata L., Poa pratensis L., Festuca pratensis H., Elytrígia repens L., Dactylis glomerata L., and Phlum pratense L. Aboveground phytomass is 100–300 g/m2; height is 25–32 cm. Plantings are characterized by the quality classes: young growth – I and II; middle-aged and maturing – III; mature and overmature – IV. At the age of natural maturity (70 years), the Robinia trunk reaches the average height of 15.1 m with the average diameter of 22.1 cm. The total stock of wood reaches 18, (ths m3), including (ths m3): young growth – 68 (ths m3); middleaged plantings – 14,871 (ths m3); maturing plantings – 2,187 (ths m3); mature and overmature plantings – 1,314 (ths m3). Aboveground phytomass in young growth is 20.2 t/ha; in mature and overmature plantings it is 391.2 t/ha. In the region it is estimated at 17,070 ths t, including (ths t): young growth – 64; middle-aged plantings – 13,753; maturing plantings – 2,032; mature and overmature plantings – 1,221. The share of stem mass reaches 84.5–80.8 %; woody greenery – 4.2–1.5 %; branches – 11.3–17.7 %. Recalculation coefficients of the stock into aboveground phytomass are the following for: young growth – 0.936; mature and overmature forest shelterbelts – 0.929. Phytosaturation of forest shelterbelts varies within 0.314–2.474 kg/m3. Forest shelterbelts have accumulated 8,534 ths t of carbon, which is estimated at 145.1 mln dollars. The sphere of application of the research results is the Krasnodar Krai forestry, which is recommended to create an additional 60 ths ha of forest shelterbelts, which will provide a normative protective forest cover of arable land of 5 % and annual carbon sequestration up to 3.4 t/ha.

Keywords: Robinia pseudoacacia L., forest shelterbelts, wood stock, aboveground phytomass, carbon sequestration
Assessment of Plantations Ornamentality

Assessment of Plantations Ornamentality

Authors: O.S. Zalyvskaya, N.A. Babich
Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Number: 6
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Abstract

The issue of biodiversity and sustainability of tree and shrub plantations in large cities is relevant both in Russia and abroad. Their ornamentality is an indicator of adaptation and ability to fully perform their functions. It is relevant to create plantations, decorative throughout the calendar year. The research purpose is to develop a scale for assessing the ornamentality of plantations in urban conditions. This procedure is based on scoring the following characteristics of green spaces: sanitary state; decorative qualities of trunk and crown; characteristics of flowering (according to duration, abundance, color and size of flowers); characteristics of leafing (variety of summer and autumn colors, total duration of leafing). There are 5 most common types of plantations: single-breed arboreal; single-breed shrub; mixed wood; mixed shrub; and woodshrub groups, in which the research was carried out. A mixed group of blue spruce (Picea pungens Eng.), bird cherry (Padus racemosa Lam.) and Hungarian lilac (Syringe josikae Jacg.) has the highest degree of ornamentality in northern conditions (24.8 points). A single-breed plantation of common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius L.) has the least ornamentality score (13.1 points), which is due to its sanitary state. The total score depends not only on the species assortment, but also on the plantation sanitary state. The ornamentality score increases with distance from the road, which is due to the improvement in the sanitary state of trees and shrubs (22.8 points at a distance versus 21.4 points near the road). Among all the studied types of plantations in the cities of the Arkhangelsk agglomeration, 50 % have a high degree of ornamentality, 45 % – medium and 5 % – low. Single-breed plantations are generally less decorative than mixed (20.5 points versus 23.4 points). Urban plantations are more or less decorative throughout the entire calendar year. The proposed scheme of the procedure assumes an assessment of decorative effect during all seasons of the year. So, the following should be recorded: the beginning of the period of leafing and flowering in spring; the sanitary state, flowering (duration, abundance, color and size of flowers) in summer; the color scheme of the leaves, the total duration of leafing in autumn; the decorative qualities of trunk and crown (architectonics of crown, coloring of branches) in winter.

Keywords: biodiversity, sustainability, dendroflora, urban system, ornamentality, assessment
Distribution of English Oak (Quercus robur L.) and Norway Maple (Acer platanoides L.) with Height in a Shelterbelt

Distribution of English Oak (Quercus robur L.) and Norway Maple (Acer platanoides L.) with Height in a Shelterbelt

Authors: O.V. Gribacheva, A.I. Chernodubov
Year: 2020, Volume: 9, Number: 6
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Abstract

The organizing framework of adaptive landscape agriculture is protective afforestation. The study of the shelterbelt state is necessary for detection of their protective height due to the dramatically changing climatic conditions. The research purpose is to carry out the distribution of trees of English oak (Quercus robur L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) with height for the stand structure evaluation, as well as to propose the measures for the condition improvement of English oak. The shelterbelt, the spatial structure of which was studied, is located in the vicinity of the village of Zolotarevka (65 km from the city of Lugansk). Archival data on the creation time and age of the studied forest shelterbelt were not revealed. Shelterbelts in the Lugansk region were created in accordance with the “Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature”, which was designed for 1949–1965. Sampling areas were laid out in accordance with the industrial standard OST 56-69–83. The composition of the shelterbelt, the diameter and average height of the trees were determined based on the results of enumerative valuation. The coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of stands of the studied species were calculated by the standard methods of biometrics. The distribution of Norway maple and English oak trees with height was checked with the normal distribution of trees in the plantation according to the Shapiro-Wilk test. The authors revealed that arithmetic and valuation mean heights of the stands of English oak and Norway maple on two permanent sampling areas differ slightly. It was found that the stand of Norway maple on the first and second sampling areas is characterized by positive right-side symmetry and positive kurtosis. Analyzing the stand condition, it is arguable that the coefficient of skewness of the English Oak stand on both areas is not the same in sign and numerical value: on the first sampling area – leftside negative (As = –2.026) and on the second – right-side positive (As = 0.973). The authors pay particular attention to the fact that the value of the coefficient of kurtosis of the English Oak stands is the highest on the first sampling area – 3.044. On the basis of the ShapiroWilk test it is shown that the curve of distribution of the Norway maple stands with height on the first and second sampling areas does not correspond to the normal distribution curve for the plantations. While the curve of distribution of the English Oak stands with height on the second sampling area is close to the indicator of the Shapiro-Wilk test for normal stands and is 0.823 (for p = 0.05, W = 0.842, n = 10).

Keywords: shelterbelt, Quercus robur L., Acer platanoides L., tree stand, average diameter, arithmetic mean height, valuation mean height, coefficient of skewness, coefficient of kurtosis, Shapiro-Wilk test
Pigment Composition of Sphagnum fuscum of Wetlands under Anthropogenic Impact

Pigment Composition of Sphagnum fuscum of Wetlands under Anthropogenic Impact

Authors: S.B. Selyanina, V.G. Tatarintseva, I.N. Zubov, N.A. Kutakova, T.I. Ponomareva
Year: 2020, Volume: 12, Number: 6
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Abstract

Oligotrophic bogs prevail among wetlands in the mainland of the North of Russia. The study of the moss cover response to the increase in anthropogenic load makes it possible to reveal a shift in the ecological balance of bog ecosystems. The goаl of the research is to reveal changes in the pigment apparatus of the moss cover under drainage, road construction and mining operation as in the case of the Arkhangelsk region. Sphagnum fuscum (Schimp.) H. Klinggr. was used as the main object for studying the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus. A change in the pigment composition during the drainage of bogs was found when comparing the pigments of S. fuscum moss on the undisturbed Ilas bog massif and the drained bog massif “Ovechye”; the content of carotenoids decreases and the content of chlorophyll a increases. The influence of the traffic load was studied in an open wetland of the Mezen district, where there is no tree-shrub layer. Succession of dominant species is observed in the moss-lichen layer of the bog in the immediate vicinity of the road (34 m); the projective cover of sphagnum mosses decreases to less than 10 %, and brie mosses emerge as dominants. The content of all analyzed pigments in moss samples increases with the distance from unpaved roads, especially the content of chlorophylls (>5 times at a distance of 100 m and more). As an example of the anthropogenic impact of a mining enter prise, we used terricones of the Lomonosov Mining and Processing Plant, PJSC Severalmaz, from which aeolian transport of dust particles of rocks containing saponite occurs. Near the pollution source, the content of total moss pigments is noticeably lower than in the area protected by a forest belt. A decrease in the proportion of chlorophylls a and b with a slight increase in the content of carotenoids was found in the pigment complex. The changes are due to the transfer of saponite; a clay mineral that actively absorbs water. The increased moisture provides favorable conditions for the moss vegetation, which mitigates the negative effect of pollutants on the pigment apparatus of plants. Overall, pigments content change represents plants adaptation to the adverse impacts and anthropogenic pressing.

Keywords: chlorophyll, carotenoids, sphagnum, water-logged northern territories and their development
Features of the Harvesting and Logging Equipment Market in Russia

Features of the Harvesting and Logging Equipment Market in Russia

Authors: M.A. Piskunov
Year: 2020, Volume: 16, Number: 6
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Abstract

Russian forest sector forms an attractive market for harvesting and logging equipment, however the position of Russian manufacturers is extremely weak. A brief overview of the current state of the market is presented with reference to the open sources. Its features are mentioned as compared to the road construction and agricultural machinery sectors. Three transnational companies dominate the Russian market of harvesting and logging equipment: John Deere, Ponsse and Komatsu. Most of the purchased equipment falls on machines for cut-tolength technology, such as harvester and forwarder. The market volume of new machines is estimated at 330–420 forwarders, 165–300 harvesters, about 30–40 feller bunchers and the same number of skidders. There were two waves in the consolidation of the position of foreign companies in Russia. The first was connected with the delivery of equipment and the development of foreign brands in Russia against the background of still high-profile positions of Russian manufacturers in the market. The second is the takeover of enterprises having a service network and reputation by diversified transnational corporations. The main strategies of the leading companies in the current situation are the export of equipment to Russia and the development of a service network. Companies do not turn to another level associated with the opening of production sites or joint ventures for the production of harvesting and logging machines. The Russian market is characterized by the absence of a strong Russian manufacturer of harvesting and logging machines, which is ready to significantly influence or actively participate in the processes of import substitution. The position of such a manufacturer is gradually occupied by the Belarusian Amkodor Holding. The purchase of new harvesting and logging machines can afford major timber companies. The main production sites of harvesting and logging machines are located in Finland, Sweden, USA, and Canada. In order to support forestry machine engineering, in addition to economic measures of stimulation approved in other sectors, it is proposed: to organize the work of scientific forest engineering centers on the base of public-private partnership with the financial support from the major vertically-integrated timber corporate groups; to stimulate the development of Russian sector-specific information technologies for harvesting and logging; to initiate the partnership with companies from the People’s Republic of China to launch the design and production of new-generation harvesting and logging machines.

Keywords: harvesting and logging equipment, timber industry, timber corporate group, feller buncher, skidder, harvester, forwarder, cut-to-length technology machines, tree-length technology machines
A Mathematical Model of Fuel Consumption for the Forwarder Amkodor-2682 When Performing Forestry Operations

A Mathematical Model of Fuel Consumption for the Forwarder Amkodor-2682 When Performing Forestry Operations

Authors: K.P. Rukomojnikov, V.O. Kuptcova, T.V. Sergeeva
Year: 2020, Volume: 11, Number: 6
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Abstract

Cost justification of fuel and lubricants is high on the agenda of planning and practical use of forwarders in Russia and abroad. The problem solution is becoming increasingly important due to rising prices for fuel and energy resources. The share of costs for fuel resources ranges from 46 to 70 % in different natural and industrial conditions. This is due to the presence of cutting areas with different characteristics of the species composition. Currently, there are consumption rates for fuel and lubricants for mechanized work performed in forestry. However, they lack regulatory guidelines for calculating the fuel of modern logging machines used in skidding. There are basic standards for consumption of fuel, oil, and lubricants for different brands of domestic and foreign cars, trucks, and buses, but they also have no information on forestry equipment. The research purpose was to show the fuel consumption for the forwarder Amkodor-2682 when harvesting assortments in the climatic conditions of the Mari El Republic. The purpose was achieved through experiment using the volumetric method of refilling the machine fuel tank at the end of the operation cycle. The studies were provided with fixing the diameters and volumes of the felled trees. The forwarder fuel tank was filled to the top of the tank filler. Processing of the swath site was carried out with skidding of one pack of logs. The machine was stopped and the fuel tank was filled in after each operation of logging (idling, bundle assembling, hauling, bundle unloading). The amount of fuel in the tank was accurately fixed each time. Processing the data allowed us to obtain a regression model. This model characterizes the average fuel consumption for the forwarder Amkodor-2682 at different diameters of felled trees. Using the obtained results in forestry will make it easier to plan and calculate the operating costs of skidding equipment.

Keywords: skidding, assortment, fuel consumption rate, forwarder, mathematical model, logging
Mathematical Modeling of the Bark Drying Process

Mathematical Modeling of the Bark Drying Process

Authors: N.N. Sinitsyn, N.V. Telin
Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Number: 6
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Abstract

Currently, a large amount of wood bark waste is generated at the timber processing enterprises of the Russian Federation, which is not widely used in industry and has a negative impact on the environment. One of the feasible directions for the processing of such waste is its burning in layered furnaces. However, tree bark, due to its high moisture content and extremely heterogeneous fractional composition, belongs to a low-energy, difficult-to-burn fuel. High humidity reduces the energy density of the bark. The extremely heterogeneous fractional composition of tree bark (linear dimensions of random bark chips can vary from millimeters to tens of centimeters) complicates the organization of the burning process. Effective utilization of tree bark is ensured when it is pre-dried to a moisture content of 55–60 % and the size of bark chips not exceeding 100 mm. The purpose of the presented work is to study the temperature field in a dense blown layer of high-moisture bark when drying it with high-temperature flue gases from boiler units. A mathematical model for heating the dense layer of high moisture tree bark has been developed based on the physics analysis. It was done taking into account the assessment of the bark dense layer thickness, which uses the method of calculating the aerodynamic resistance of a transversely blown layer to a gas flow. Numerical experiments were carried out in order to calculate the temperature fields during the heating of a single chip of high moisture tree bark located in the front part of the dense blown layer. The calculation data were compared with the results obtained using the developed model. A procedure that allows calculating the total duration of heating the wet material until the layer is completely dry, the time spent on heating the blown dense layer until the complete release of volatile substances, and the temperature fields in the bark layer and gas flow has been developed on the basis of mathematical modeling of the process of the dense layer heating and thermal preparation of high moisture tree bark for burning. A scheme for preparing high moisture tree bark for burning and a method for determining the characteristic parameters of a two-stage scheme of energy use of high moisture tree bark in layered furnaces of boilers and heat generators are proposed.

Keywords: drying, high moisture bark, furnace devices, mathematical model of heating a blown dense layer, blown dense layer, temperature field of a blown dense layer, moisture phase transition
Improving the Stability of Wood-Cutting Saws by Thermoplastic Action on the Distribution of Residual Stresses in the Blade

Improving the Stability of Wood-Cutting Saws by Thermoplastic Action on the Distribution of Residual Stresses in the Blade

Authors: V.I. Melekhov, I.I. Solovev, T.V. Tyurikova, N.V. Ponomareva
Year: 2020, Volume: 10, Number: 6
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Abstract

The saw stability in operation defines the ability of the saw blade to resist the forces acting on it in the plane of greatest rigidity. The saw can work reliably only in case of maintaining stable balance, which is achieved through the creation of normalized residual stresses in certain zones of the saw blade by different methods. The stresses balance the forces of external influences. Compressive stresses are created in the central part of the blade to make the circular saw operational. These stresses compensate the forces of centrifugal acceleration, temperature heating of individual zones of the saw blade, external longitudinal and transverse bending forces arising in material processing. In practice, the creation of normalized stresses in the saw disk is traditionally carried out only by local mechanical contact action (forging, rolling) of the saw blade tool on the steel saw blade. It is proposed to form the stressed state of the disk by thermophysical action instead of the traditional mechanical processing of the saw blade. The thermophysical action involves the creation of normalized residual stresses in the saw blade by the concentrated thermal exposure to local differently directed narrow-band zones of straight or deflected shape, mainly radial or along concentric traces, controlling the process in real time. A new approach to the formation of residual stress fields in the saw blade by thermoplastic action enables to radically change the settingup procedure of the circular saw, ensuring its stability in operation.

Keywords: thermoplastic stresses, circular saw, saw stability, high-speed heating
Application of Urea-Formaldehyde Oligomer for Quality Improvment of Paper and Cardboard Products

Application of Urea-Formaldehyde Oligomer for Quality Improvment of Paper and Cardboard Products

Authors: N.V. Chornaya, N.I. Bogdanovich, S.V. Karpova, O.A. Misyurov
Year: 2020, Volume: 12, Number: 6
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Abstract

The applicability of the developed binary system of synthetic compounds in coating paste, consisting of urea-formaldehyde oligomer (2 pts. wt. to the coating paste weight) and latex (16 pts. wt.), is found. It replaces the generally used complex of natural compounds, such as modified starch (3 pts. wt.), Na-CMC (2 pts. wt.), and casein glue (1 pts. wt.), in the presence of latex (16–32 pts. wt.). The properties of the coating paste samples met the standards, as evidenced by the viscosity according to the viscometer VZ-4 (13–17 s), the content of dry substances (50–54 %) and pH (9.0–10.5). The proposed urea-formaldehyde oligomer is combined with the present components and, as compared to natural compounds, does not increase the viscosity of the coating paste, has a high cohesive force, participating in the binding of pigment particles with one another, has the necessary adhesive capacity for ensuring a stable bond of the applied coating layer with the surface of paper and cardboard, does not prevent the uniform distribution of pigment particles on the base surface, and gives stability to the coating paste. These phenomena can be explained by the supplementary presence of positively charged nitrogen-containing groups (amine and amide) in the urea formaldehyde oligomer. The latter contribute to the enhancement of cohesive and adhesive interactions in coating pastes and coatings composed of them. Assessment of a section of the coated paper (cardboard) showed that one part of the binder adjoins the base (paper, cardboard) penetrating into its pores and capillaries, the other surrounds the pigment particles, and the third occupies (completely or partially) the spaces between the particles. An increase in the surface resistance to plucking and breaking length by 6.0–8.5 and 15–20 %, respectively, is shown on the samples of light-coated newsprint and polygraphic cardboard. This allows considering the urea-formaldehyde oligomer as an alternative to natural compounds. Herewith, whiteness (85–87 %) and smoothness (250–265 s) meet the requirements. Changing the formulation of the coating paste is economically justified, since material costs for the production of coated paper and cardboard products are reduced by 1–2 %.

Keywords: coating paste, urea-formaldehyde oligomer, latex, coating, paper, cardboard, quality
Navigation and Piloting System of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Forest Fire Monitoring

Navigation and Piloting System of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Forest Fire Monitoring

Authors: O.V. Skudneva, S.V. Koptev, S.V. Ivantsov
Year: 2020, Volume: 10, Number: 6
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Abstract

Forest fires are a common natural disaster all over the world. A great number of fires occur annually in the forest ecosystems of the European North of Russia for natural reasons and as a result of anthropogenic impacts. One of the urgent problems of forestry is the organization of effective control of forest fires. Herewith, it is important to quickly detect the source of fire, as well as to monitor the development of the fire, and to coordinate the actions of the staff of the ground forest protection services. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) of different classes are increasingly used for these purposes. For forestry experience and, especially for forest fire monitoring, the most practical are helicopter-type UAV, which do not require special training of staff. Such devices can operate in the mode of “fire tower” and in the mode of monitoring the edge of the fire with an option to reset information pennants at certain points. The use of UAV is an effective means of monitoring the fire situation in addition to existing methods and technologies, and especially in cases of impossibility of using highresolution satellite images for operative tasks. For the effective operation of UAV in the area of active forest fires and, thus, strong smoke, navigation and piloting systems are necessary to perform safe flights outside the action of the ground control panel located at the starting point. The aim of this work is to develop a navigation and piloting system for UAV, which can be used in the area of limitation of ground control point. The use of such systems will allow monitoring of the fire situation in real time, which is especially important in the organization of protection and suppression of forest fires in large areas of nature reserves, where the priority is to preserve the biological diversity of natural ecosystems and unique landscapes. This article may be of interest to forestry specialists, developers of UAV and equipment, fire protection and the Ministry of Emergency Situations staff, as well as to engineering students to gain experience with UAV.

Keywords: forestry, forest fire monitoring, unmanned aerial vehicle, navigation and piloting system
Formation of Siberian Pine Forests by Improvement Felling on Former Agriculturаl Lands

Formation of Siberian Pine Forests by Improvement Felling on Former Agriculturаl Lands

Authors: S.V. Zalesov, L.А. Belov, А.S. Opletaev, A.G. Magasumova, Т.Yu. Kartashova, N.M. Debkov
Year: 2021, Volume: 10, Number: 1
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Abstract

On the base of the researches carried out on the permanent study area silvicultural effectiveness of improvement felling was analyzed in soft-leaved plantations formed on the former agricultural lands in Khanty-Mansi Autonomons Okrug – Yugra. It was experimentally found that among 25–30-year-old soft-leaved stands there is Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour); besides this, nominal undergrowth of this species can be found under the canopy. Improvement felling can provide an increase in the share of Siberian pine in the composition of the forming plantations and even its dominance in stands. It is recommended to carry out improvement felling by the strip method. On the first-stage the felling of soft-leaved species in strips of 10 m wide is carried out, while leaving strips of similar width without care. On the second stage in 10 years soft-leaved trees are cut down in those strips where care was not taken. Felling of all the accompanying Siberian pine trees in a single shot is inadmissible, since it leads to intensive growth of herbaceous vegetation, sodding and exclusion of the Siberian pine undergrowth as well as dramatically increases the fire danger in spring and autumn. In addition, at the indicated intensity, the specimens of Siberian pine left for cultivation are affected by Pineus cembrae (Cholodovsky, 1988).

Keywords: Khanty-Mansi Autonomons Okrug – Yugra, agricultural lands, fallows, reforestation, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour), improvement felling
Forecasting the Spatial Behavior of a Forest Fire at Uncertainty and Instability of the Process

Forecasting the Spatial Behavior of a Forest Fire at Uncertainty and Instability of the Process

Authors: T.S. Stankevich
Year: 2021, Volume: 14, Number: 1
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Abstract

The Russian forest fund, being a public domain of the people and a special kind of federal property, requires sustainable management at the national level. One of the key principles of forest management is to ensure that forests are conserved and protected against a wide range of threats, primarily forest fires. Although forest fires are a natural component of forest ecosystems and cannot be completely eliminated, researchers have currently revealed a decrease in the regulatory function and an increase in the destructive function of forest fires. Understanding the interrelations between the environmental factors and forest fire history is necessary for the development of effective and scientifically sound forest safety plans. The main purpose of the study is to increase the efficiency of the formation of an operational forecast of a forest fire in difficult conditions of a real fire (at instability and uncertainty). The author analyzed statistical data on forest fires the USA, Canada, Russia and the five southern European Union member states (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece) and confirmed the conclusion on the increase in the frequency of large forest fires. The most widely used in practice forecasting models of forest fire dynamics (Van Wagner, Rothermel, Finney, Cruz, etc.) and their computer implementations (Prometheus, FlamMap, FARSITE, VISUAL-SEVEIF, WILDFIRE ANALYST) are presented in the article. It is proposed to develop an intelligent system designed to create an operational forecast of a forest fire using convolutional neural networks (CNN). The structure of this system is described. It includes three main subsystems: information, intelligent and user interface. A key element of the intelligent subsystem is a forest fire propagation model, which recognizes data from sequential images, predicts the forest fire dynamics, and generates an image with a fire spread forecast. The scheme of the proposed model is described. It includes the following stages: data input; preprocessing of input data; recognition of objects using CNNs; forecasting the forest fire dynamics; output of operational forecast. The implementation features of the stage “recognition of objects using CNNs” are presented in detail: core size for each convolutional layer 3×3, activation function ReLu(x), filter in 2×2 pooling layers with step 2, max-pooling method, Object recognition and Semantic segmentation methods at the networks output.

Keywords: forest, forest fire, operational forecast, uncertainty, instability, convolutional neural networks, intelligent system

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