Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal)

Lesnoy Zhurnal (Russian Forestry Journal)

Basic info

  • Publisher: Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V.Lomonosov
  • Country of publisher: russian federation
  • Platform/Host/Aggregator: Open journal system ojs
  • Date added to EuroPub: 2019/Sep/27

Subject and more

  • LCC Subject Category: Forestry, Technology
  • Publisher's keywords: Forestry, Technology, Machinery of logging, timber processing and chemical treatment of the wood biomass
  • Language of fulltext: english, russian
  • Time from submission to publication: weeks

Publication charges

  • Article Processing Charges (APCs): No
  • Submission charges: No
  • Waiver policy for charges? No

Open access & licensing

  • Type of License: CC BY
  • License terms
  • Open Access Statement: No
  • Year open access content began: 2001
  • Does the author retain unrestricted copyright? False
  • Does the author retain publishing rights? False

Best practice polices

  • Permanent article identifier: DOI
  • Content digitally archived in: eLIBRARY.RU
  • Deposit policy registered in:

This journal has '88' articles

The Effectiveness of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field and Hydrogel Influence on Survival Rate and Growth of Red Oak (Quercus rubra L.) Annual Seedlings

The Effectiveness of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field and Hydrogel Influence on Survival Rate and Growth of Red Oak (Quercus rubra L.) Annual Seedlings

Authors: A.I. Smirnov, F.S. Orlov, P.A. Aksenov, Yu.V. Yaskov
Year: 2020, Volume: 8, Number: 5
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Abstract

This work presents the results of a research that was conducted in the Donskoy Leskhoz nursery of the Forestry Department of the Lipetsk Region. The purpose of the research is to determine the effectiveness of the influence of a low-frequency electromagnetic field and the hydrogel “Evabiona” on the survival rate of red oak annual seedlings grown in open ground of the nursery. This research presents the technology for creating red oak planting material with increased survival indices of test samples and their biometric parameters: seedling height, seedling diameter at a root collar, weight of roots and aboveground part in the air-dry condition after drying for 15 days. Treatment of red oak one-year old seedlings with a low frequency electromagnetic field was carried out according to the author’s technology POSEP – pre-sowing treatment of seeds and seedlings with an electromagnetic field. The hydrogel, a polymer water-retaining agent that absorbs and retains a large amount of moisture in the rhizosphere of plants, was applied to soil in the experimental research. The ability of the hydrogel granules to swell-compression improves the structure and drainage of soils, boosting the conditions of aeration and filtration of water, and maintains its waterretaining properties for several years. The research results indicate a clear positive effect of treatment with a low-frequency electromagnetic field and the hydrogel, as there was a significant increase in the survival rate of the test samples of oak seedlings in relation to the control samples. Also within the framework of the research a comparative histometric analysis of cross sections of control and test stems of oak seedlings was carried out late in the growing season at the laboratory of the Department of Forest Crops, Selection and Dendrology of the Mytishchi Branch of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. The results of this research showed that a low-frequency electromagnetic field and the hydrogel can influence on the anatomical structure of seedlings, improving their quality characteristics. Thus, pre-sowing treatment of oak seedlings with a low-frequency electromagnetic field and the use of the hydrogel showed the effectiveness of these techniques in increasing the survival rate of seedlings and obtaining high-quality planting material of red oak in forest nurseries.

Keywords: low frequency EMF, POSEP technology, hydrogel, red oak seedlings, histometric analysis
Recreational Changes in the Forest Ecosystem Components: Case Study of the Cultural Heritage Site “White Sea Petroglyphs” (Republic of Karelia)

Recreational Changes in the Forest Ecosystem Components: Case Study of the Cultural Heritage Site “White Sea Petroglyphs” (Republic of Karelia)

Authors: A.V. Tuyunen, V.V. Timofeeva, A.Yu. Karpechko, Y.N. Tkachenko, V.A. Karpin, N.V. Petrov
Year: 2020, Volume: 15, Number: 5
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Abstract

Recreation digression of forest ecosystems in the heritage site “White Sea Petroglyphs” was studied for the first time. This site is a compact system of rock outcrops partially cleared of forest vegetation, which bear Neolithic rock carvings (petroglyphs), and are linked together by walking trails. Patterns have been identified in the transformation of soils, plant cover components (tree stand, tree seedlings, understory and living ground cover), as well as fine roots (within 3 mm in diameter) of woody species under the recreation impact. Trampling was found to deform and destroy the top soil horizons, entailing a significant loss of the forest floor thickness and organic matter stores. Overall, the flora of the area is quite well preserved; 95–100 % of which is represented by native species. The living ground cover is noticeably damaged in the most actively used sites (fragments of trails and vista points). They feature a poor species composition, shrinking of the herb-dwarf shrub and moss-lichen cover, and a low percent cover of grassland and ruderal species. Easily accessible and actively visited sites have no or reducing amounts of tree seedlings, the tree stand is damaged and forest regeneration is hampered – the number of viable seedlings is minimal (100 pcs/ha). The mass of roots below 3 mm in diameter in heavily trampled trails showed a reduction of up to 74 %, while the root saturation in less affected trails slightly increased. Recreation transformations of the plant communities have not resulted in a loss of their resilience so far. The recreational digression in the studied sites was classified into stages I–III (weakly disturbed – strongly disturbed). Function zoning of the area should be modified using recreation-tolerant communities more intensively in order to reduce recreation impact. The most damaged areas, which are losing their stability, should be excluded from active use by modification of walking trails and building additional boardwalks.

Keywords: recreational pressure, trampling, soil, forest litter, living ground cover, flora, tree stand, digression, fine roots, root occupation
Dendrochronological Studies of Wood at Historically Significant Sites of the Arctic

Dendrochronological Studies of Wood at Historically Significant Sites of the Arctic

Authors: P.A. Feklistov, N.M. Byzova, A.I. Pashkevich, E.V. Sazanova, A.N. Sobolev
Year: 2020, Volume: 12, Number: 5
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Abstract

Studies of wood in the Arctic were carried out on Vaygach Island, Hooker Island (Franz Joseph Land) and Novaya Zemlya. During the expedition “Arctic Floating University – 2013”, wood samples (cores) were taken from the buildings in key areas of the Arctic islands. Conforming to the wood samples we constructed tree-ring series and obtained floating chronologies, which were linked to dendroscales of standing trees with known year of each annual ring formation. Crossdating of floating chronologies was performed as follows. Dendroscale and floating chronology were overlapped and the synchronicity coefficient was calculated, then the dendroscale was shifted for a year and the coefficient was calculated again; the procedure was repeated until all possible options were checked. Visual similarity was assessed and the annual rings of floating chronology were dated based on the results with the maximum synchronicity coefficient, and the object was dated by the outermost ring. The year of formation of each annual ring of the buildings logs was determined by the dendrochronological method, resulting in assumption of the time of their construction, taking into account that it occurred a year or two after the tree felling. All the studied objects were located in areas with preserved history of their creation, which is highly important for confirming the objectivity of the obtained results. The dates of the buildings were determined as follows: Vaigach Island, 1945; Hooker Island (Franz Josef Land), 1936; the former bathhouse on Cape Zhelaniya (Novaya Zemlya), 1935; timber from the pillbox, 1938; the lighthouse, 1952; the frame on the coast of Ledyanaya Gavan’ Bay (Novaya Zemlya), 1938; a relatively modern building on the coast of the bay, 1991. Interesting to note that according to the obtained historical records the Lighthouse was built in year 1954, while dating by annual rings shows that the logs were in 1952 and they were probably imported in advance. The years for the construction research based on the use of the dendrochronological method opens up great opportunities at determining the age of unnamed wooden in the Arctic.

Keywords: dendrochronological method of study, dendroscales, the Arctic, historical and cultural heritage sites, floating chronology
Evaluation of Ecological Plasticity аnd Stability of Some Promising Varieties of Poplars

Evaluation of Ecological Plasticity аnd Stability of Some Promising Varieties of Poplars

Authors: A.P. Tsarev, V.A. Tsarev, R.P. Tsareva, N.V.Laur
Year: 2020, Volume: 11, Number: 5
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Abstract

When developing promising assortments of forest woody plants, it is important to take into account not only their growth and survival in some particular environment, but also their respond to change in growing conditions. In this regard, the purpose of this work is to evaluate the ecological plasticity and stability of some poplar varieties promising for the southeastern part of European Russia and Ukraine using the Eberhart and Russell method. The research was carried out on three testing sites: upland environment of the forest-steppe zone of the Voronezh region; floodplain environment of the dry steppe zone of the Volgograd region; and floodplain environment of the steppe zone of the Donetsk region. Five promising poplar varieties were identified and studied at each of the experimental sites. The indices of survival, growth in height and diameter, trunk volumes, and productivity by wood stocks and average increments are presented for each variety. Due to the average increments change with age, the ontogeny period from 21 to 30 years was chosen for the study, during which the average survival of poplars varies slightly. It was found that Regenerata, which is characterized by average plasticity and the lowest stability, was the most productive of the studied poplar varieties. It can perform high productivity only in the favorable environment. The poplar variety Pioneer demonstrated the least plasticity. Its productivity did not vary too much with change in growth conditions at average ecological stability. The highest plasticity at average ecological stability was observed in the Vernirubens variety. Average plasticity and stability were observed in poplar E.s.-38. The poplar variety Marilandica was also characterized by average plasticity, and high ecological stability. The research results allow using of the studied varieties more rational in different growing conditions, with regard to their environmental characteristics.

Keywords: poplar varieties, survival, growth, productivity, ecological plasticity, ecological stability, Eberhart and Russell method
A Predictive Model of the Impact of the Skidding System on Forest Soil in Severe Climatic Conditions

A Predictive Model of the Impact of the Skidding System on Forest Soil in Severe Climatic Conditions

Authors: S.E. Rudov, V.Ya. Shapiro, I.V. Grigorev, O.A. Kunitskaya, O.I. Grigoreva
Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Number: 5
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Abstract

In the Russian Federation logging operations are traditionally carried out in winter. This is due to the predominance of areas with swamped and water-logged (class III and IV) soils in the forest fund, where work of forestry equipment is difficult, and sometimes impossible in the warm season. The work of logging companies in the forests of the cryolithozone, characterized by a sharply continental climate, with severe frosts in winter, is hampered by the fact that forest machines are not recommended to operate at temperatures below –40 °C due to the high probability of breaking of metal structures and hydraulic system. At the same time, in the warm season, most of the cutting areas on cryosolic soils become difficult to pass for heavy forest machines. It turns out that the convenient period for logging in the forests of the cryolithozone is quite small. This results in the need of work in the so-called off-season period, when the air temperature becomes positive, and the thawing processes of the soil top layer begin. The same applies to the logging companies not operating in the conditions of cryosolic soils, for instance, in the Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda regions, etc. The observed climate warming has led to a significant reduction in the sustained period of winter logging. Frequent temperature transitions around 0 °C in winter, autumn and spring necessitate to work during the off-season too, while cutting areas thaw. In bad seasonal and climatic conditions, which primarily include off-season periods in general and permafrost in particular, it is very difficult to take into account in mathematical models features of soil freezing and thawing and their effect on the destruction nature. The article shows that the development of long-term predictive models of indicators of cyclic interaction between the skidding system and forest soil in adverse climatic conditions of off-season logging operations in order to improve their reliability requires rapid adjustment of the calculated parameters based on the actual experimental data at a given step of the cycles.

Keywords: frozen soil, thawing soil, logging, skidding system, soil compaction, soil deformation
Fuel Consumption of a Straddle Forestry Tractor in Consideration of Stochastic Factors

Fuel Consumption of a Straddle Forestry Tractor in Consideration of Stochastic Factors

Authors: D.G. Myasishchev, D.N. Shostenko, A.V. Serebrennikov
Year: 2020, Volume: 9, Number: 5
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Abstract

Currently, there is a tendency for creation a cross-functional tractor line of drawbar category. Everything is very practical and consistent from the perspective of the producer of such tractors. The number of modular units and assemblies is minimized, and the list of components is reduced. However, all this is acceptable up to a certain limit, which is outlined by the technological trail of the tractor being created and the specifics of its application. The article deals with a straddle forestry tractor of drawbar category of 6 kN. It is assumed that the tractor has a variety of trains of working bodies and machines, as well as a cargo bed on the pin-joint section. The cargo mode of the unitʼs movement is examined by a random microprofile under the wheels in tracks. The problem of statistical dynamics is solved. As an output process, a Laplace image is drawn for the hourly fuel consumption of the tractor engine. As an input process, a Laplace image is drawn for an external random action from the microprofile along the tracks. Herewith, the transfer function of the hourly fuel consumption is determined, which allows to estimate the spectral density of the tractor’s hourly consumption and the dispersion of the hourly consumption for the given microprofile of the tracks. In addition, using the correlation theory of random processes, one can estimate the mathematical expectation of the hourly fuel consumption during transport operations. In the final analysis, it is possible to solve the optimization problem. Namely, the choice of such undercarriage tires, which provide a minimum dispersion and mathematical expectation of the hourly fuel consumption of the transport unit. The situational combination comes down to the fact that an increase in the tire radius on one side increases the height of the center of gravity of the unit, which increases the hourly fuel consumption. On the other hand, an increase in the radius of the tire contributes to a reduction in the coefficient of rolling resistance of a wheel, and hence a decrease in fuel consumption. Thus, there is a problem of discrete optimization, namely, the choice of a tire design, in which the energy costs of the transport unit are minimized.

Keywords: straddle tractor, microprofile, fuel consumption, transfer function, optimization
Modifying Wood for Creation Plain Bearings of Timber Machines

Modifying Wood for Creation Plain Bearings of Timber Machines

Authors: G.A. Pilyushina, P.G. Pyrikov, E.A. Pamfilov, A.Ya. Danilyuk, V.V. Kapustin
Year: 2020, Volume: 10, Number: 5
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Abstract

The use of modified wood in different friction pairs of timber machines and processing equipment is largely due to its high wear resistance, low coefficient of friction and good dissipative characteristics. The positive properties of composite materials are achieved by using technologies of volumetric modification and implantation of antifriction and heatconducting elements, as well as by forming a composite of crushed wood with the addition of modifying additives and three-dimensional reinforcement. The expansion of the scope of using composite materials in the designs of units with sliding friction pairs necessitates carrying out research on their performance and formation conditions for high level tribotechnical parameters: wear resistance, antifriction, heat resistance, etc. Lack of information on the effect from the factors providing the functional characteristics of wood-based materials, including thermal conductivity and vibration absorption significantly complicates the problem analysis in design and technology when developing and producing bearing joints. Therefore, the purpose of this work was studying the conditions of contact interaction of plain bearings made of wood-metal composite materials, allowing for rheological effects, and developing the ways of control their tribotechnical parameters by changing the structure, composition and phase filler. Models of bearings of different types, which allow creating a regulated stress-strain state in sleeves and liners, were developed for these purposes. Research of the bearings performance made it possible to find vibration-damping properties when using suspended crushed fractions in the composite. Increased antifriction properties are achieved in the process of wood modification with electrolytic copper, while the manufacturability of a bearing sleeve is achieved when the support is formed directly at the installation site. Unlike most of the used antifriction materials, the bushings wood maintains the stability of structure in conditions of volumetric compression at negative and positive temperatures, and the wear processes occurring on the contact surfaces of wood-metal bearings are followed by the compaction of the sleeve material. The subsequent destruction is predominantly of fatigue nature, initiated by the dynamics of vibrations and disturbances of the system; therefore, an important part of further research is the assessment of the relaxation ability of wood-metal composites under shock-vibration loading with optimization of their composition according to this criterion.

Keywords: tribotechnical parameters, wood-based materials, electrolytic coppering, wear resistance, thermal conductivity, stress state
Reasoning of Tree Cross Sections Oval Shaping while Growing with an Inclination

Reasoning of Tree Cross Sections Oval Shaping while Growing with an Inclination

Authors: V.N. Glukhikh, A.G. Chernykh
Year: 2020, Volume: 9, Number: 5
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Abstract

It is known that it is possible to determine the age of a tree and the conditions for its growth by some external features. These features include the number of annual layers on the tree trunk cross section, the correct geometric shape of these layers. The stem taper indicates where this tree grew: in an overstocked stand or in open areas. The oval shape of the cross sections of the trunk is common to the trees with irregular crown or grown inclined to the horizon. A powerful external action of a prevailing wind load influences on the cross sections shaping of tree trunks. Trunk, crown and corresponding cross-breaking strength and compression resistance along the wood fibers of a tree are formed in response to all external influences during its growth. The collaborative effect of these factors is the size, shape and location of the core and sapwood zones in the tree trunks, on which the strength, density, and location of wood defects are dependent, and which affect the quality of wood products in-service. The authors chose the initial stress formed during the tree growth as a uniform criterion for assessing the influence of the natural features of wood on the quality and strength of wooden building structures. The value of which can be fairly estimated by the size and shape of the core and sapwood zones of the tree trunks cross sections. The size and shape of these zones can be measured by scanning. The log sawing pattern should be selected using appropriate computer software that allow obtaining the high-quality sawn timber for the construction purposes. The research purpose is to develop a method for determining the size and shape of the core and sapwood zones of the tree trunk sections that have a natural curvature and grow vertically or with an inclination to the horizon; and what is more, to substantiate the connection between the shape and size of the tree trunk oval sections with the initial stresses developing during growth and the wood strength under tension, compression along the fibers and static bending.

Keywords: wood ultimate strength, statistical bending, bending moment, timber structures, stress strain behavior, primary stress, core shifting
Modeling the Production Processes of Wood-Fiber Semi-Finished Products Aimed at Expansion of the Raw Material Base of Forest Enterprises

Modeling the Production Processes of Wood-Fiber Semi-Finished Products Aimed at Expansion of the Raw Material Base of Forest Enterprises

Authors: M.A. Zyryanov, S.O. Medvedev
Year: 2020, Volume: 7, Number: 5
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Abstract

Currently, materials made of wood-fiber semi-finished products are widely used in house building as structural, finishing and insulating materials. According to the results analysis of numerous studies, the raw material for their production is technological chips of woodworking waste. While production, the chips are subjected to hydrothermal treatment and further grinding in disk knife grinding machines in two stages. Significant energy consumption of the wood fiber production process is driven not only by grinding wood chips in stages, but also by overcoming the hydrodynamic resistance of the aqueous environment, where grinding is carried out. The process of grinding wood chips, made of from chopping residues, in an aerodynamic medium on an upgraded cross-bar mill was studied in order to solve the problem of expanding the raw material base for the production of a wood fiber semifinished product and reducing the energy intensity of the grinding process. The features of this process were analyzed and its effectiveness was assessed. The influence of the exposure time of wood chips of chopping residues in an acetic acid solution, the size of the working gap and the angle of inclination of the front edge of the knife on the grinding degree and fractional quality of wood pulp grinding was determined. Statistical and mathematical equations, that describe the studied process, were obtained, and the graphical dependencies are constructed. The following basic requirement is fulfilled for the dependencies: the experimental points for a total should lie quite close to the curve. These equations allow predicting the quality of wood pulp depending on the set modes of the grinding process; as well as determining the quality indicators of wood pulp with known values of the technological and structural parameters of the grinding machine. The efficiency of the process of obtaining the wood-fiber semi-finished product in an aerodynamic environment from wood chips produced as a result of chopping residues (branches, twigs, etc.) processing in a mobile wood chipper, is proven.

Keywords: fibrillation, grinding degree, chips, fiber, chopping residues, mathematical model, grinding
Nitration of Hydrolysis Lignin in Water-Aprotic Solvent Mixtures

Nitration of Hydrolysis Lignin in Water-Aprotic Solvent Mixtures

Authors: D.E. Lakhmanov, Yu.G. Khabarov, V.A. Veshnyakov, M.R. Yokubjanov
Year: 2020, Volume: 8, Number: 5
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Abstract

Industrial lignins are formed from native lignins during chemical or biochemical processing of plant raw materials. Lignins can be modified to produce valuable products, including monomers, polymeric materials, and composites. The article presents the results of a study of hydrolysis lignin nitration under various conditions. The aim of the study was to obtain a nitrated hydrolysis lignin with a maximum yield and maximum nitrogen content. Therefore, the nitration was carried out using nitric acid in a water-aprotic solvent binary mixtures (1,4-dioxane, dimethyl sulfoxide, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile). Acetyl nitrate, which is a mixed anhydride of nitric and acetic acids, was also used as a nitrating agent. In this regard, the consumption of acetic anhydride in the synthesis of acetyl nitrate was used taking into account the water present in concentrated nitric acid. Acetyl nitrate was obtained by the reaction of acetic anhydride and concentrated nitric acid at room temperature for 30 min. Acetyl nitrate is a mild nitrating agent opposed to nitric acid. Nitration was carried out under reflux in a boiling water bath for 2–5 min (with nitric acid) or 1–60 min (with acetyl nitrate). Upon completion of the nitration reaction, the products were filtered, washed with distilled water and dried to constant weight without heating. When nitration was performed with nitric acid, the maximum yield of nitrated hydrolysis lignin (83–101 %) was achieved using 1,4-dioxane, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran; and the maximum nitrogen content (4.3–4.5 %) was achieved using 1,4-dioxane or acetonitrile. The use of dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide leads to a decrease in the product yield to 23–35 %, to a lower nitrogen content of 1.3–3.9 % and an increased oxygen content, which indicates the occurrence of not only nitration, but also depolymerization and oxidative transformations. When nitration with acetyl nitrate, the reaction takes place for 1–3 min, herewith the product contains up to 4.7 % of nitrogen. On the IR spectra of nitrated hydrolysis lignins, new absorption bands appear at 1555 and 1710 cm–1 due to the appearance of carboxyl and nitro groups.

Keywords: hydrolysis lignin, nitration, aprotic solvents, nitric acid, acetyl nitrate
Cellulose Pulp from Mulberry Branch Bark for the Paper Industry

Cellulose Pulp from Mulberry Branch Bark for the Paper Industry

Authors: Kh.A. Babakhanova, Z.K. Galimova, M.M. Abdunazarov, I.I. Ismailov
Year: 2020, Volume: 7, Number: 5
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Abstract

Uzbekistan is bare of forests and it takes the fifth place in the world in terms of cotton production, and the third place in terms of silk production after China and India. According to the government program the expansion of the land area for mulberry plantations boosts the growth of silk production causing an increase in the total amount of wastes, i.e. branches of mulberry trees industrially useless after the removal of leaves. Their use as a raw material for the cellulose pulp production is relevant, since it is aimed at solving not only the resource, but also the environmental problem. The bark was cut off from the mulberry branches and soaked in water for some time after which its exterior hard layer was scraped off and divided into the rough exterior layer and the softer inner layer. The inner layer was boiled for several hours. The boiled bast, after washing with water, was grinded in a laboratory grinding machine under the following conditions: mass concentration – 1 %, temperature – 22 °С. A given amount of lint cotton cellulose (grinding degree – 45 °SR) was added to the grinded bast. Paper molds with the mass of 80 g/m2 were obtained in laboratory conditions using a sheet-making apparatus. It was found out that the obtained paper that contains cotton cellulose pulp and inner layer of mulberry branch bark has low whiteness which depends on whiteness of the added fibers. It has been established that adding the cellulose pulp of the inner layer of mulberry branch bark at a grinding degree of 30 °SR contributes to the production of strong paper. It is recommended to add up to 30 % of cellulose pulp from the inner layer of mulberry branch bark to paper pulp as further addition adversely affects the paper whiteness.

Keywords: cellulose pulp, mulberry branch bark, grinding degree, paper, whiteness, breaking load, breaking length, bending resistance
The Major Results of the Silvicultural Heritage of the Forester K.F. Turmer

The Major Results of the Silvicultural Heritage of the Forester K.F. Turmer

Authors: M.D. Merzlenko
Year: 2020, Volume: 9, Number: 5
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Abstract

Bibliography of academic papers on forestry activities of the well-known forester K.F. Turmer has more than 150 titles, including papers by the author of this article (more than 20). Today, almost 2,000 ha of his plantings have been preserved in the center of the Russian Plain. The purpose of the article is to summarize the silvicultural heritage of K.F. Turmer. The results of this study indicate the compliance with the conformity principle of conifers with forest site conditions along with optimal patterns of their mixing and placement of planting points. The results of a long-term study of the K.F. Turmer’s forest crops showed that in rich forest site conditions of indigenous spruce forests the creation of pine-spruce plantations is the most promising. The plantations in composition of 7 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) and 3 Norway spruces (Picea abies) in 100 years produce 800 m3 of trunk wood per 1 ha. The introduction of European larch has shown very good results. In forest crops it is capable to produce 1,000 or more m3 of trunk wood per 1 ha in combination with ripe spruce. Indeed K.F. Turmer implemented the principle of plantation forestry, which allows significantly increasing the silvicultural effect and reducing the age of felling in order to obtain commercial coniferous wood.

Keywords: forest crops, coniferous tree species, productivity of plantings, decay of forest stands
Update on the Boundaries of the Curly Birch Range

Update on the Boundaries of the Curly Birch Range

Authors: L.V. Vetchinnikova, A.F. Titov
Year: 2020, Volume: 13, Number: 6
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Abstract

Russian forest sector forms an attractive market for harvesting and logging equipment, however the position of Russian manufacturers is extremely weak. A brief overview of the current state of the market is presented with reference to the open sources. Its features are mentioned as compared to the road construction and agricultural machinery sectors. Three transnational companies dominate the Russian market of harvesting and logging equipment: John Deere, Ponsse and Komatsu. Most of the purchased equipment falls on machines for cut-tolength technology, such as harvester and forwarder. The market volume of new machines is estimated at 330–420 forwarders, 165–300 harvesters, about 30–40 feller bunchers and the same number of skidders. There were two waves in the consolidation of the position of foreign companies in Russia. The first was connected with the delivery of equipment and the development of foreign brands in Russia against the background of still high-profile positions of Russian manufacturers in the market. The second is the takeover of enterprises having a service network and reputation by diversified transnational corporations. The main strategies of the leading companies in the current situation are the export of equipment to Russia and the development of a service network. Companies do not turn to another level associated with the opening of production sites or joint ventures for the production of harvesting and logging machines. The Russian market is characterized by the absence of a strong Russian manufacturer of harvesting and logging machines, which is ready to significantly influence or actively participate in the processes of import substitution. The position of such a manufacturer is gradually occupied by the Belarusian Amkodor Holding. The purchase of new harvesting and logging machines can afford major timber companies. The main production sites of harvesting and logging machines are located in Finland, Sweden, USA, and Canada. In order to support forestry machine engineering, in addition to economic measures of stimulation approved in other sectors, it is proposed: to organize the work of scientific forest engineering centers on the base of public-private partnership with the financial support from the major vertically-integrated timber corporate groups; to stimulate the development of Russian sector-specific information technologies for harvesting and logging; to initiate the partnership with companies from the People’s Republic of China to launch the design and production of new-generation harvesting and logging machines.

Keywords: harvesting and logging equipment, timber industry, timber corporate group, feller buncher, skidder, harvester, forwarder, cut-to-length technology machines, tree-length technology machines
Oak Stands Affected by Polyporaceae and Their Viability in the South-West of the Central Russian Upland

Oak Stands Affected by Polyporaceae and Their Viability in the South-West of the Central Russian Upland

Authors: A.V. Dunaev, S.V. Kalugina, E.N. Dunaeva, A.S. Korotkih, A.Yu. Kurskoy, M.A. Polshina
Year: 2020, Volume: 11, Number: 6
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Abstract

One of the reasons for the weakened state of English oak Quercus robur L. in coppice oak forests of the southern forest-steppe of European Russia is trunk and butt rots, the causative agents of which are the representatives of pathogenic polypore fungi (PPF). This article is devoted to the study of the state of oak stands due to the prevalence of PPF on the oak. The research was carried out in the south-western part of the Central Russian Upland in the seasons of 2009-2017. The research objects were coppice oak stands in upland and ravine oak forests with English oak Q. robur L. and the PPF species associated with oak. The communities include the following species: Fistulina hepatica, Laetiporus sulphureus, Fomitiporia robusta, Inocutis dryophila, Pseudoinonotus dryadeus, Daedalea quercina, Hapalopilus croceus, Grifola frondosa, Fomes fomentarius, Polyporus squamosus. Field surveys were carried out according to a complex methodology using the methods of traditional phytopathology and modern mycocenology and the adapted methods of mycopathocenological surveys. The methodology of cameral research consisted of general scientific methods of systematization of primary empirical data using the methods of descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis and estimation of the difference of sample means. As a result of the studies, a significant positive correlation was revealed between the value of the weighted average category of the state of viability of oak stands (СV1-6) and the value of the total prevalence of species from the PPF communities on the oak (R): r = 0.388 (Student’s t-test tactual = 2.562; the critical value of Student’s t-test tst = 2.021; the number of degrees of freedom k = 37; the probability of incorrect estimation P = 0.05). Statistical models reflecting the interdependencies between these values were obtained: СV1-6(R): Y = 0.0268X + 2.2290; R(СV1-6): Y = 5.6262X – 5.7204. These models allow estimating changes of each of the specified values by changing the other.

Keywords: oak Quercus robur L., oak forests, pathogenic polypore fungi (PPF), Central Russian Upland, category of viability state (CV), tree mortality, correlation, statistical mode
Comparative Assessment of Valuation Indicators of Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica) Forest Plantations when Introduction into the Nizhny Novgorod Region

Comparative Assessment of Valuation Indicators of Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica) Forest Plantations when Introduction into the Nizhny Novgorod Region

Authors: M.M. Ulitin, V.P. Besschetnov
Year: 2020, Volume: 9, Number: 6
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Abstract

The practice of using Siberian larch in artificial reforestation on the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod region in the forests of the Bogorodsk district is considered. It should be noted that the relevance of the development of forest plantations with the diversification of their species composition is due to the prospects for the expansion of the forest industry, which is determined by the State Program “Forestry Sector Development in the Russian Federation”. At the same time, despite of a wide range of possibilities of economic use of Siberian larch in the Nizhny Novgorod region, it is practically not used here when developing artificial stands for various purposes and structures. Scots pine is mainly used in the development of forest plantations in the Nizhny Novgorod region. Although the positive effect of the introduction of Siberian larch into the stand composition is confirmed by a comparative assessment of valuation indicators in forest plantations on the territory of the Bogorodsk district forestry. Based on the research results, 3 plots with the same types of forest site conditions were examined. High-quality Siberian larch stands with various species composition were formed on the plots. The work was carried out by the field methods; the principle of single logical distinction was their methodological framework. The characteristics of the trial plots were given on the basis of an on-site survey. All research results were statistically significant. A relationship has been established between the species composition and the stock of these stands. In larch plantations mixed in species composition, a larger stock has been accumulated than in pure stands. Also, the study revealed a relationship between the age of stands and the variability of the tested valuation indicators. The research results confirmed the effectiveness of the development of Siberian larch forest plantations in the Nizhny Novgorod region and the acceptability of using the forestry fund areas with forest site conditions of category C2 for these purposes. The obtained results will be useful in development of Siberian larch plantations in the Middle Volga region, since it has been revealed that the plantations in the Bogorodsk district of the Nizhny Novgorod region achieve the high productiveness at the age of 54.

Keywords: forest plantations, Siberian larch, introduction, silvicultural characteristics, valuation indicators

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